The Chinese Language (also called as Han yu = language of the Han) and “Common Speech” (Pu tong hua) or Mandarin, is based on the northern dialect, using the dialect of Beijing as the basis for its pronunciation and modern vernacular literature for its grammatical structure. This is the Chinese that is taught in all school in China.
The english word “Mandarin” comes from Portuguese “mandarim”, because the first Europeans – the Portuguese was dealing with the Chinese government as early as the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). They had been using this term to refter to Chinese offcials. government officials, as well as Mandarin Chinese. “Mandarim” by Portuguese the verb mandar (command, control), mando (power, command, military power).
Scholars think Chinese writing originated almost four thousand years ago and that the spoken language goes back to romote antiquity, making it one of the world´s oldest languages.